If you tickle a young chimp, gorilla or orang-utan, it will hoot, holler and pant in a way that would strongly remind you of human laughter. The sounds are very different - chimp laughter, for example, is breathier than ours, faster and bereft of vowel sounds ("ha" or "hee"). Listen to a recording and you wouldn't identify it as laughter - it's more like a handsaw cutting wood.
But in context, the resemblance to human laughter is uncanny. Apes make these noises during play or when tickled, and they're accompanied by distinctive open-mouthed "play faces". Darwin himself noted the laugh-like noises of tickled chimps way back in 1872. Now, over a century later, Marina Davila Ross of the University of Portsmouth has used these noises to explore the evolutionary origins of our own laughter.
Davila Ross tickled youngsters of all of the great apes and recorded the calls they make (listen to MP3s of a tickled chimp, gorilla, bonobo and orang-utan). She used these recordings to build an acoustic family tree, showing the relationships between the calls. Scientists regularly construct such trees to illustrate the relationships between species based on the features of their bodies or the sequences of their genes. But this is the first time that anyone has applied the same technique to an emotional expression.
The tree linked the great apes in exactly the way you would expect based on genes and bodies. To Ross, this clearly shows that even though human laughter sounds uniquely different, it shares a common origin with the vocals of great apes. It didn't arise out of nowhere, but gradually developed over 10-16 million years of evolution by exaggerating the acoustics of our ancestors. At the very least, we should now be happy to describe the noises made by tickled apes as laughter without accusations of anthropomorphism, and to consider "laughter" as a trait that applies to primates and other animals
Altogether, Davila-Ross recorded the laughs of 3 human babies, 7 orang-utans, 5 gorillas, 4 chimps, 5 bonobos and 1 siamang (the largest of the gibbons). All of them were playfully tickled by friendly humans in their home environments and on their palms, feet, necks or armpits. Two independent researchers carefully analysed each recording, noting their pitch and timing across 11 different measures. They compared how long the calls were, how many were made, how high-pitched they became, and more.
Her phylogeny of tickled laughter exactly matches the known relationships between the apes - human laughs are most closely related to those of bonobos and chimps, less similar to those of gorillas and most distinct from those of orang-utans and siamangs.
Laughter is very much an instinctive part of human life. Babies who are born deaf can still laugh, and deaf people will laugh while using sign language in the same places that speakers would do. Davila-Ross's study suggests that this innate behaviour has deep evolutionary roots and arose by exaggerating traits found in apes. For example, our laughs are "voiced", meaning that they are made by vibrations of the vocal cords. Among the other apes, laughter usually takes the form of unvoiced noises like huffs and pants, although bonobos did occasionally made voiced calls.
Humans also only ever laugh while breathing out, while other apes can laugh twice on every breath, during both the exhale and the inhale. Chimps, in fact, laugh almost exclusively in this alternating style. Humans compensate for this restriction by being able to exhale a steady flow of air for much longer than a normal breath cycle, a vital ability that lets us speak properly without continually having to catch our breath. Some scientists had thought of this as a uniquely human ability, but the tickle sessions clearly show that gorillas and bonobos can both sustain an exhalation for 3-4 times longer than their normal breath cycle.
The figure below represents Davila-Ross's take on the evolution of laughter. She imagines that the last common ancestor of the apes had a primordial laugh that was longer and slower than ours, consisting of short bursts of noisy calls with little variation between them. Both voicing and long, steady exhalations evolved well before our ancestors split away from those of bonobos and chimps. The rest of our vocal characteristics are just subtle tweaks of those of apes. Of course, this research tells us nothing about why these particular properties developed in the way they did, and what they meant for the evolution of laughter as a means of communication. That will have to wait for future studies.
Reference: Current Biology DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2009.05.028
Images, sound files and videos courtesy over University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover.
More on apes:
- Orang-utan study suggests that upright walking may have started in the trees
- Chimps show that actions spoke louder than words in language evolution
- A burst of DNA duplication in the ancestor of humans, chimps and gorillas
- Genetic neoteny - how delayed genes separate human brains from chimps
- Communicating chimps and talking humans show activity in same part of the brain
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Interesting stuff, though I'm always a little cautious when anything that can potentially be affected by subjective bias comes out "exactly the way you would expect". I'll have to look into it a bit to make sure that they picked traits that can be reliably distinguished, but on first glance it looks pretty solid.
Orangutans are critically endangered in the wild because of rapid deforestation and the expansion of palm oil plantations. If nothing is done to protect them, these gentle creatures could be extinct in just a few years...
Visit the Orangutan Outreach website to learn how YOU can make a difference! http://redapes.org
Reach out and save the orangutans
You should see what happens when you stick your finger in an ape's butt.
your readers may or may not already be familiar with research indicating that rats also "giggle" when tickled:
"Humans also only ever laugh while breathing out..."
It's quite so absolute - anecdotally, I do know one guy who vocalizes on the inhalation of his laugh.
Have you tickled your inner ape today?!
I would LOVE to read the grant proposal written for this research. I think it would be something like: 'This research seeks to tickle primates...to see what happens...'
I'd love to see the job ad for the ape tickler position. Wanted:....
Lol @ Mike. "I'm going to tickle baby apes. What do you mean "Why?" What's wrong with you? I'm. Going. To. Tickle. Baby. Apes. For SCIENCE"
This is not "the first time that anyone has applied the same technique to an emotional expression." Two more basic emotions, joy and disgust, and their expression, smiles and grimaces, have also been phylogenically modeled (Kent Berridge, Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews, 2000 and 2001). These models have led to hypotheses about the ethological roles for both of these facial expressions. Notably, grimaces or 'gapes' are can be elicited by bitter or aversive tastes in many organisms, while smiles are elicited by sweet or appetitive tastes. These observations suggest that smiles and joy might have arisen as a means to increase consumption of a safe and valuable food substance, while might help to expel toxic or pathogenic substances.
I didn't look at the paper or anything, but the tree depicted on this page does not seem to be rooted correctly. Shouldn't there be an outgroup, a species that does NOT exhibit the characteristic studied? Or maybe the saimang was it and wasnt shown? Just wondering. :)
Yep, the siamang was the outgroup but wasn't indicated on the tree.