*Andrea Braides*

- Published in print:
- 2002
- Published Online:
- September 2007
- ISBN:
- 9780198507840
- eISBN:
- 9780191709890
- Item type:
- book

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198507840.001.0001
- Subject:
- Mathematics, Applied Mathematics

This book introduces the main concepts of the theory of De Giorgi's Gamma-convergence and gives a description of its main applications to the study of asymptotic variational problems. The content is ...
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This book introduces the main concepts of the theory of De Giorgi's Gamma-convergence and gives a description of its main applications to the study of asymptotic variational problems. The content is based on results obtained during thirty years of research. The book is divided into sixteen short chapters, an Introduction, and an Appendix. After explaining how a notion of variational convergence arises naturally from the study of the asymptotic behaviour of variational problems, the Introduction presents a number of examples that show how diversified the applications of this notion may be. The first chapter covers the abstract theory of Gamma-convergence, including its links with lower semicontinuity and relaxation, and the fundamental results on the convergence of minimum problems. The following ten chapters are all set in a one-dimensional framework to illustrate the main issues of convergence without the burden of high-dimensional technicalities. These include variational problems in Sobolev spaces, in particular homogenization theory, limits of discrete systems, segmentation and phase-transition problems, free-discontinuity problems and their approximation, etc. Chapters 12-15 are devoted to problems in a higher-dimensional setting, showing how some one-dimensional reasoning may be extended, if properly formulated, to a more general setting, and how some concepts already introduced can be integrated with vectorial issues. The final chapter introduces the more general and abstract localization methods of Gamma-convergence. All chapters are complemented by a guide to the literature, and a short description of extensions and developments.Less

This book introduces the main concepts of the theory of De Giorgi's Gamma-convergence and gives a description of its main applications to the study of asymptotic variational problems. The content is based on results obtained during thirty years of research. The book is divided into sixteen short chapters, an Introduction, and an Appendix. After explaining how a notion of variational convergence arises naturally from the study of the asymptotic behaviour of variational problems, the Introduction presents a number of examples that show how diversified the applications of this notion may be. The first chapter covers the abstract theory of Gamma-convergence, including its links with lower semicontinuity and relaxation, and the fundamental results on the convergence of minimum problems. The following ten chapters are all set in a one-dimensional framework to illustrate the main issues of convergence without the burden of high-dimensional technicalities. These include variational problems in Sobolev spaces, in particular homogenization theory, limits of discrete systems, segmentation and phase-transition problems, free-discontinuity problems and their approximation, etc. Chapters 12-15 are devoted to problems in a higher-dimensional setting, showing how some one-dimensional reasoning may be extended, if properly formulated, to a more general setting, and how some concepts already introduced can be integrated with vectorial issues. The final chapter introduces the more general and abstract localization methods of Gamma-convergence. All chapters are complemented by a guide to the literature, and a short description of extensions and developments.

*George Jaroszkiewicz*

- Published in print:
- 2016
- Published Online:
- January 2016
- ISBN:
- 9780198718062
- eISBN:
- 9780191787553
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718062.003.0014
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology

This chapter discusses Newton’s concept of absolute time and its use in classical mechanics. It defines clocks and our freedom to change them, that is, reparametrization of time. The chapter goes on ...
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This chapter discusses Newton’s concept of absolute time and its use in classical mechanics. It defines clocks and our freedom to change them, that is, reparametrization of time. The chapter goes on to discuss Aristotelian and Galilean–Newtonian space-times. It explains how Newton’s first law of motion is required to correlate successive copies of space. It discusses the differences between the Newtonian paradigm of motion and the use of Lagrangians in the Calculus of Variations that gives the Euler–Lagrange equations of motion in advanced mechanics. The chapter concludes with a discussion of phase space, Hamiltonians, Poisson brackets, and the role of the Hamiltonian as a generator of translation in time.Less

This chapter discusses Newton’s concept of absolute time and its use in classical mechanics. It defines clocks and our freedom to change them, that is, reparametrization of time. The chapter goes on to discuss Aristotelian and Galilean–Newtonian space-times. It explains how Newton’s first law of motion is required to correlate successive copies of space. It discusses the differences between the Newtonian paradigm of motion and the use of Lagrangians in the Calculus of Variations that gives the Euler–Lagrange equations of motion in advanced mechanics. The chapter concludes with a discussion of phase space, Hamiltonians, Poisson brackets, and the role of the Hamiltonian as a generator of translation in time.

*Jennifer Coopersmith*

- Published in print:
- 2017
- Published Online:
- June 2017
- ISBN:
- 9780198743040
- eISBN:
- 9780191802966
- Item type:
- chapter

- Publisher:
- Oxford University Press
- DOI:
- 10.1093/oso/9780198743040.003.0003
- Subject:
- Physics, Particle Physics / Astrophysics / Cosmology, History of Physics

The link between mathematics and physics is explained, and how the concepts “coordinates,” “generalized coordinates,” “time,” and “space” have evolved, starting with Galileo. It is also shown that ...
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The link between mathematics and physics is explained, and how the concepts “coordinates,” “generalized coordinates,” “time,” and “space” have evolved, starting with Galileo. It is also shown that “degrees of freedom” is a slippery but crucial idea. The important developments in “space research”, from Pythagoras to Riemann, are sketched. This is followed by the motivations for finding a flat region of “space”, and for Riemann’s invariant interval. A careful explanation of the three ways of taking an infinitesimal step (actual, virtual, and imperfect) is given. The programme of the Calculus of Variations is described and how this requires a virtual variation of a whole path, a path taken between fixed end-states. This then culminates in the Euler-Lagrange Equations or the Lagrange Equations of Motion. Along the way, the ideas virtual displacement and extremum are explained.Less

The link between mathematics and physics is explained, and how the concepts “coordinates,” “generalized coordinates,” “time,” and “space” have evolved, starting with Galileo. It is also shown that “degrees of freedom” is a slippery but crucial idea. The important developments in “space research”, from Pythagoras to Riemann, are sketched. This is followed by the motivations for finding a flat region of “space”, and for Riemann’s invariant interval. A careful explanation of the three ways of taking an infinitesimal step (actual, virtual, and imperfect) is given. The programme of the Calculus of Variations is described and how this requires a virtual variation of a whole path, a path taken between fixed end-states. This then culminates in the Euler-Lagrange Equations or the Lagrange Equations of Motion. Along the way, the ideas virtual displacement and extremum are explained.